01 Sep 12
By R L Summers, S Sterling
Curr Opin Crit Care. 2012;18:301-307
Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is characterized by a complex spectrum of pathophysiology that emerges as a common clinical disease state, which manifests as a failure of the circulation to provide for the needs of the body systems. Whereas ADHF is often characterized by the findings of pulmonary congestion and dyspnea, a variety of clinical presentations are possible, with each requiring differing management strategies. This review examines the approach of the four-quadrant clinical profile for differentiation of the ADHF patient during the emergent resuscitative phase of the decompensation.
Clinical and diagnostic information can be used to determine the relative degree of pulmonary congestion and peripheral tissue perfusion in patients suspected of ADHF. This information can be used in a four-quadrant approach to differentiate patients into pathophysiologic categories. These profiles can then be translated into management strategies from a physiology based perspective in which the specific mechanisms of the failure are targeted.
ADHF can present in a variety of clinical forms in the emergent setting. Categorization of the ADHF patient according to their individual hemodynamic profile can assist in management decisions during the emergent resuscitative phase of the decompensation based upon an approach that targets causative pathophysiologic mechanisms.
12 Oct 10
By S Zanotti-Cavazzoni, S Hollenberg
Current Opinion in Critical Care 2009;15:392-397
Severe sepsis and septic shock are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to the intensive care unit. The purpose of this review is to review current understanding of sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction and discuss pertinent findings regarding its clinical presentation, underlying mechanisms of disease, and therapy. Recent findings: Cardiac dysfunction in sepsis is characterized by decreased contractility, impaired ventricular response to fluid therapy, and in some patients ventricular dilatation. Current data support a complex underlying physiopathology with a host of potential pathways leading to myocardial depression. Circulating factors such as cytokines (TNF-[alpha], IL-1[beta]), lysozyme c, endothelin-1 have direct inhibitory actions on myocyte contractility. Nitric oxide has a complex role in sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction. Current data suggest a combination of deleterious and positive effects on the myocardium determined by the specific type of nitric oxide expressed. Recent studies have shown that mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis also play a role in the development of sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction. Current treatment for sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction is based on appropriate treatment for the infectious focus (antibiotics and source control) and hemodynamic support (fluids, vasopressors, and inotropes). Summary: Cardiac dysfunction is common in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Current understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible is rapidly evolving and future novel therapeutic targets may be soon available. Present therapy for sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction is based on treatment of underlying sepsis with antibiotics and hemodynamic support.
17 Jan 10
By CTorgersen, C Schmittinger, S Wagner, H Ulmer, J Takala, S Jakob and M Dünser
Critical Care 2009, 13:R157
Despite the key role of hemodynamic goals, there are few data addressing the question as to which hemodynamic variables are associated with outcome or should be targeted in cardiogenic shock patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hemodynamic variables and cardiogenic shock mortality.
Medical records and the patient data management system of a multidisciplinary intensive care unit (ICU) were reviewed for patients admitted because of cardiogenic shock. In all patients, the hourly variable time integral of hemodynamic variables during the first 24 hours after ICU admission was calculated. If hemodynamic variables were associated with 28-day mortality, the hourly variable time integral of drops below clinically relevant threshold levels was computed. Regression models and receiver operator characteristic analyses were calculated. All statistical models were adjusted for age, admission year, mean catecholamine doses and the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (excluding hemodynamic counts) in order to account for the influence of age, changes in therapies during the observation period, the severity of cardiovascular failure and the severity of the underlying disease on 28-day mortality.
One-hundred and nineteen patients were included. Cardiac index (CI) (P = 0.01) and cardiac power index (CPI) (P = 0.03) were the only hemodynamic variables separately associated with mortality. The hourly time integral of CI drops <3, 2.75 (both P = 0.02) and 2.5 (P = 0.03) L/min/m2 was associated with death but not that of CI drops <2 L/min/m2 or lower thresholds (all P > 0.05). The hourly time integral of CPI drops <0.5-0.8 W/m2 (all P = 0.04) was associated with 28-day mortality but not that of CPI drops <0.4 W/m2 or lower thresholds (all P > 0.05).
During the first 24 hours after intensive care unit admission, CI and CPI are the most important hemodynamic variables separately associated with 28-day mortality in patients with cardiogenic shock. A CI of 3 L/min/m2 and a CPI of 0.8 W/m2 were most predictive of 28-day mortality. Since our results must be considered hypothesis-generating, randomized controlled trials are required to evaluate whether targeting these levels as early resuscitation endpoints can improve mortality in cardiogenic shock.
By M Yilmaz and A Mebazaa
Critical Care 2009, 13:1013
Cardiogenic shock is a lethal condition. Physicians are searching for hemodynamic markers which could help risk-stratification of patients in this picture. Torgersen and coworkers present an hourly time integral of the cardiac power index and cardiac index drops to predict outcomes in the setting of cardiogenic shock. Continuous monitoring of hemodynamic markers may have a role in prediction of outcomes.