22 Jan 10

Smoking, smoking cessation and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus

Posted in Diabetes, Pre-operatie evaluation at 0:32 by Laci

By Y Hsin-Chieh, B Duncan,  M Schmidt, N Wang F Brancati

Ann Int Med 2010;152:10-17

Cigarette smoking is an established predictor of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the effects of smoking cessation on diabetes risk are unknown.

Objective
To test the hypothesis that smoking cessation increases diabetes risk in the short term, possibly owing to cessation-related weight gain.

Design
Prospective cohort study.

Setting
The ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study.

Patients
10 892 middle-aged adults who initially did not have diabetes in 1987 to 1989.

Measurements
Smoking was assessed by interview at baseline and at subsequent follow-up. Incident diabetes was ascertained by fasting glucose assays through 1998 and self-report of physician diagnosis or use of diabetes medications through 2004.

Results
During 9 years of follow-up, 1254 adults developed type 2 diabetes. Compared with adults who never smoked, the adjusted hazard ratio of incident diabetes in the highest tertile of pack-years was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.67). In the first 3 years of follow-up, 380 adults quit smoking. After adjustment for age, race, sex, education, adiposity, physical activity, lipid levels, blood pressure, and ARIC Study center, compared with adults who never smoked, the hazard ratios of diabetes among former smokers, new quitters, and continuing smokers were 1.22 (CI, 0.99 to 1.50), 1.73 (CI, 1.19 to 2.53), and 1.31 (CI, 1.04 to 1.65), respectively. Further adjustment for weight change and leukocyte count attenuated these risks substantially. In an analysis of long-term risk after quitting, the highest risk occurred in the first 3 years (hazard ratio, 1.91 [CI, 1.19 to 3.05]), then gradually decreased to 0 at 12 years.

Limitation
Residual confounding is possible even with meticulous adjustment for established diabetes risk factors.

Conclusion
Cigarette smoking predicts incident type 2 diabetes, but smoking cessation leads to higher short-term risk. For smokers at risk for diabetes, smoking cessation should be coupled with strategies for diabetes prevention and early detection.

07 Oct 06

The role of body mass index and diabetes in the development of acute organ failure and subsequent mortality in an observational cohort

Posted in Diabetes, Organ failure at 10:18 by Laci

By K Slynkova, DM Mannino, GS Martin, RS Morehead, DE Doherty

Critical Care 2006, 10:R137

Several studies have shown a correlation between body mass index (BMI) and both the development of critical illness and adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. The goal of our study was to examine this relationship prospectively with particular attention to the influence of concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM).

Methods
We analyzed data from 15,408 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study for this analysis. BMI and the presence of DM were defined at baseline. We defined ‘acute organ failure’ as those subjects who met a standard definition with diagnostic codes abstracted from hospitalization records. Outcomes assessed included the following: risk of the development of acute organ failure within three years of the baseline examination; in-hospital death while ill with acute organ failure; and death at three years among all subjects and among those with acute organ failure.

Results
At baseline, participants with a BMI of at least 30 were more likely than those in lower BMI categories to have DM (22.4% versus 7.9%, p < 0.01). Overall, BMI was not a significant predictor of developing acute organ failure. The risk for developing acute organ failure was increased among subjects with DM in comparison with those without DM (2.4% versus 0.7%, p < 0.01). Among subjects with organ failure, both in-hospital mortality (46.5% versus 12.2%, p < 0.01) and 3-year mortality (51.2% versus 21.1%, p < 0.01) was higher in subjects with DM. Conclusion
Our findings suggest that obesity by itself is not a significant predictor of either acute organ failure or death during or after acute organ failure in this cohort. However, the presence of DM, which is related to obesity, is a strong predictor of both acute organ failure and death after acute organ failure.

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