03 Apr 10

Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America guidelines for developing an institutional program to enhance antimicrobial stewardship

Posted in Critical Care, Infection at 1:00 by Laci

By T Dellit, R Owens, J McGowan, D Gerding, R Weinstein, J Burke et al

Clinical Infectious Diseases 2007;44:159–177

This document presents guidelines for developing institutional programs to enhance antimicrobial stewardship, an activity that includes appropriate selection, dosing, route, and duration of antimicrobial therapy. The multifaceted nature of antimicrobial stewardship has led to collaborative review and support of these recommendations by the following organizations: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Society of Health‐System Pharmacists, Infectious Diseases Society for Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, Society for Hospital Medicine, and Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists. The primary goal of antimicrobial stewardship is to optimize clinical outcomes while minimizing unintended consequences of antimicrobial use, including toxicity, the selection of pathogenic organisms (such as Clostridium difficile), and the emergence of resistance. Thus, the appropriate use of antimicrobials is an essential part of patient safety and deserves careful oversight and guidance. Given the association between antimicrobial use and the selection of resistant pathogens, the frequency of inappropriate antimicrobial use is often used as a surrogate marker for the avoidable impact on antimicrobial resistance. The combination of effective antimicrobial stewardship with a comprehensive infection control program has been shown to limit the emergence and transmission of antimicrobial‐resistant bacteria. A secondary goal of antimicrobial stewardship is to reduce health care costs without adversely impacting quality of care.

30 Mar 10

Pro/con debate: Should antimicrobial stewardship programs be adopted universally in the intensive care unit?

Posted in Critical Care, Infection at 21:47 by Laci

By P George and A Morris

Critical Care 2010;14:205

You are director of a large multi-disciplinary ICU. You have recently read that hospital-wide antibiotic stewardship programs have the potential to improve the quality and safety of care, and to reduce the emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms and overall costs. You are considering starting one of these programs in your ICU, but are concerned about the associated infrastructure costs. You are debating whether it is worth bringing the concept forward to your hospital’s administration to consider investing in.

Statement for debate
Antibiotic stewardship programs improve patient outcomes and cost-effectiveness in critically ill patients in the ICU.

03 Jan 10

Primary influenza viral pneumonia

Posted in Infection, Influenza at 1:37 by Laci

By Jordi Rello and Aurora Pop-Vicas

Critical Care 2009, 13:235

Primary influenza pneumonia has a high mortality rate during pandemics, not only in immunocompromised individuals and patients with underlying comorbid conditions, but also in young, healthy adults. Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for this diagnosis in patients presenting with influenza-like symptoms that progress quickly (2-5 days) to respiratory distress and extensive pulmonary involvement. The sensitivity of rapid diagnostic techniques in identifying infections with the pandemic 2009 H1N1v influenza strain is currently suboptimal. The most reliable real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) molecular testing is available in limited clinical settings. Despite 6 months of pandemic circulation, most novel H1N1v pandemic strains remain susceptible to oseltamivir. Ensuring an appropriate oxygenation and ventilation strategy, as well as prompt initiation of antiviral therapy, is essential in management.

05 Jul 09

Perioperative supplemental oxygen therapy and surgical site infection

Posted in Infection at 15:56 by Laci

By M Qadan, O Akça, S Mahid, C Hornung, H Polk

Arch Surg 2009;144:359-366;  Click here for Invited critique

To conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in which high inspired oxygen concentrations were compared with standard concentrations to assess the effect on the development of surgical site infections (SSIs).

Data sources
A systematic literature search was conducted using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases and included a manual search of references of original articles, poster presentations, and abstracts from major meetings (“gray” literature).

Study selection
Twenty-one of 2167 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 5 randomized controlled trials (3001 patients) assessed the effect of perioperative supplemental oxygen use on the SSI rate. Studies used a treatment-inspired oxygen concentration of 80%. Maximum follow-up was 30 days.

Data extraction
Data were abstracted by 3 independent reviewers using a standardized data collection form. Relative risks were reported using a fixed-effects model. Results were subjected to publication bias testing and sensitivity analyses.

Data synthesis
Infection rates were 12.0% in the control group and 9.0% in the hyperoxic group, with relative risk reduction of 25.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.1%-40.1%) and absolute risk reduction of 3.0% (1.1%-5.3%). The overall risk ratio was 0.742 (95% CI, 0.599-0.919; P = .006). The benefit from increasing oxygen concentration was greater in colorectal-specific procedures, with a risk ratio of 0.556 (95% CI, 0.383-0.808; P = .002).

Conclusions
Perioperative supplemental oxygen therapy exerts a significant beneficial effect in the prevention of SSIs. We recommend its use along with maintenance of normothermia, meticulous glycemic control, and preservation of intravascular volume perioperatively in the prevention of SSIs.

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